The title of this article is somewhat troll-bait albeit a sentiment posited by many Perl critics. Perl is an awesome and relevant programming language with a huge repository of modules, expressive syntax, and quirky semantics (which I love) and many other benefits which derive from an uncommon approach towards software development; having said that, the following are ten reason to love or hate the Perl programming language.
1. Expressiveness. It’s Multiple Choice All The Way Down.
The Perl programming language and its community are centered around the TIMTOWTDI philosphy (there’s is more than one way to do it), and it’s multiple-choice all the way down, i.e. Perl is a multi-paradigm and context-sensitive language, with support for compiler directives, and can be configured to require implicit or explicit syntax. A simple Perl 5 script feels like a superset of shell scripting. Enable the strict and warnings pragmas and Perl starts to feel like a dynamic high-level programming language. Leverage any of the many object systems available, e.g. mop, Moo, Moose, et al, and it starts feeling like you’re implementing a structured and tightly coupled architecture. What’s nice is that none of this is forced on you; you opt-in for additional features where desired. Due to the ability to scale/morph Perl into more strict, formal and powerful variants as-needed is one of the main reasons I enjoy developing with it.
2. The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network. The CPAN.
The CPAN is a distributed code repository of Perl modules and, is a historical representation of the Perl community, its standards, ideas, and experience. It’s not uncommon to hear others remark that the CPAN is the sole reason to consider using Perl; and while I disagree I will concede that it’s a powerful incentive. The Perl community has always endeavored to maintain a minimalist core referring to the CPAN to extend application development. The CPAN is a grand social demonstration of opensource collaboration and a one stop shop for searching modules; reading documentation and source-code; reviewing module ratings and smoke test results (provided by a collective of testers and a network of testing server known as cpan-testers); as well as downloading and experimenting with distributions. The collection of modules is vast and updated daily. Looking closely at the Perl community you’ll see a mature operation at work with active and experienced collaborators.
3. Unix Integration and Text Processing.
Perl is a programming language inspired by various others, e.g. C, Awk, Sed, and a handful of Unix command-line tools and as such has support for many Unix OS operations. Many of Perl’s core functions are representations of Unix concepts and tools. Perl also has very powerful text processing support; strings and the regex (regular expression) engine are first-class citizens, i.e. part of the language syntax, not provided by a library, and because of this most Perl programmers are better than average at string manipulation (opinion not fact). Perl is a go-to tool for many system administrators because of the aforementioned benefits and the fact that it ships with most all Linux distributions. Perl is still very-much the glue holding many systems together at a high and low level. OS’ utilities, cron-scripts, cgi-scripts, data-mining tools, console applications, etc.
4. Performance. Damn Fast for an Interpreted Language.
In many benchmarks found around the Internet Perl 5 demonstrates amazing performance and memory utilization. It has proven itself to be the most optimized, mature and stable language amongst its peers. While some people claim it to be the most advanced and popular programming language in the world, we can all concede that it’s clearly a very good choice for getting stuff done quickly. Unfortunately Perl is often misunderstood because of widespread slander misrepresenting its capabilities. The story of Perl is much like a Hollywood drama about a once unattractive youth (Perl) who has grown to possess considerable style, beauty and sophistication. Additionally, there are a few initiatives underway to make Perl even faster (e.g. RPerl, MCE, Coro, or any of the many Perl JVM projects.
5. Object-Systems. Pick Your Poison.
Perl is not an object-oriented language but it does support object-oriented programming by blessing objects into classes. This was not part of Perl’s design originally and has indeed been bolted on circa ‘95 in a manner necessary to support backwards compatibility (which has since become a long-held tradition). I don’t mind this, as mentioned previously, many additional features of Perl need to be added on or enabled and have variants. The Perl fellowship of object-systems is no exception (except that they’re exceptional). The following is a description of just a few object systems available on the CPAN which can be used to structure Perl applications depending on your needs: Mo (minimal), Moo (minimal, does roles/traits), Mouse (complete, does roles/traits, does type-checking), Moose (advanced, does roles/traits, does type-checking-and-declaration, does meta-programming), Moops (experimental, based-on-Perl6, does roles/traits, does type-checking-and-declaration, does meta-programming), Class::Accessor (old-guard, quick-and-dirty construction and accessors), etc
6. Sigils. Annotations are an Acquired Taste.
Either you love em’ or you hate em’. Sigils are a type of annotation embedded in a variable name much like hungarian-notation (an old naming convention) except that sigils are generally enforced. In Perl, a sigil is a variable name prefix using the “*”, “&”, “$”, “@”, or “%” symbol. Many programming languages use sigils to denote type or scope (e.g. Perl, Ruby, PHP, etc) and many do not (e.g. Python, Java, etc). The warrant for sigils is mostly relegated as matter of taste but I find them incredibly useful and miss them when working in languages that don’t have or require them. Additionally, sigils make the use of parentheses optional in many cases. Imagine an empty script in your sigil-less language of choice, it has an instruction that requires a user-defined module on one line and a print-output function followed by a sequence of characters without parentheses on the next line. How would a developer that did not write that code determine whether the sequence of characters is a variable, a function, a literal or a constant? It’s definitely not obvious. Moreover, though arguably a lame thing to want to do, having sigils allows you to create two variables with the same name in the same scope which have different purpose (meaning), so you could say that sigils allow homonyms in code.
7. Parallel Processing. The Future of Computing.
Perl makes easy things easy and hard things possible. Parallel processing is hard even if the language supports it natively. Parallel processing is necessary where large problems can be broken into smaller operations and executed concurrently; I believe parallel processing implementation and scaling patterns will be common knowledge to the developers of the future. Currently, Perl has very well-rounded support for parallel processing via threads (e.g. threads, Coro), forking (e.g. Proclet, Child, Parallel::Prefork), and event-loops (e.g. POE, AnyEvent, Reflex).
8. Regular Expressions. The Little Engine that Could.
The regular-expression engine has always been part of the Perl language and syntax; it has arguably been the source of its popularity. Like Perl, regular-expressions draw the same type of adoration or disdain because of its terse expressiveness, power and flexibility. Many other programming languages provide regular-expressions support using a standard library which has been heavily influenced by Perl’s implementation. The really cool thing is that Perl’s regular-expressions are built into the language’s syntax, i.e. the regex bazooka is always armed and loaded, but why stop there, the CPAN has scores of modules that make using regular-expressions even more awesome (e.g. Regexp::Assemble, Regexp::Common, Regexp::Debugger, etc).
9. Portability. Native on Most OS’.
Did you know that Perl is everywhere? It’s in almost every modern Linux distribution which means it’s being used by major financial institutions and other organizations that require reliable technologies. It’s being used by NASA in planes, rocket-ships, defense systems, consoles, etc. Perl is probably in your OS right now. Perl just might be in your house chatting-up your girlfriend as you’re reading this. Perl is commonly referred to as a glue or duct-tape language because it is a go-to resource for getting $#!+ done quickly (without all the ceremony other languages require). There are ports of Perl for all major operating systems including Mac OS and Windows, and, ofcourse, there is likely to be multiple flavors (e.g. on Windows you have Strawberry Perl and ActiveState Perl).
10. Meta-programming. Hacking Perl with Perl at Runtime.
Meta-programming is the writing, re-writing and introspection of programs at runtime. In typical Perl fashion there is more than one implementation of this functionality (e.g. Moose, Class::MOP, mop). As of this writing, Perl has a very good MOP (meta-object protocol), having said that it is also worth saying that there is an initiative underway to include a more robust default object-system and meta-object protocol in the Perl 5 core, written in Perl, which means that Perl will have reflection, and many of us are very optimistic. If you’re not bursting yet consider this, Perl developers will soon be able to legitimately extend and alter the functionality of objects at runtime without resorting to hacking. Sounds scary, yes, but this is yet another reason that Perl is an amazing tool to have in your toolbox. Additionally, for more on hacking Perl using Perl, see source filtering resources (e.g. Filter::Simple, Devel::Declare, and more) for ways to alter/extend the language’s syntax using Perl.
Programming languages are culture; They are nationalities; They are religions; They are expressions of ideas and philosophies shared by a group of like-minded individuals, … and so, in conclusion, … all programming languages suck, actually, all spoken languages suck as well in that both programming and spoken languages are exclusive and lack precision. Math is the only true universal language. Math is written in Perl, therefore, Perl is the only true universal language. Learn Perl and become a persnickety freedom-loving zealot like me.
footnote: You don’t have to profess hate for one thing in order to express love for another. -Naveed Massjouni (friend and co-worker)